Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer Research
https://jhmtr.semnan.ac.ir/
Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer Researchendaily1Mon, 20 Jun 2016 00:00:00 +0430Mon, 20 Jun 2016 00:00:00 +0430Spectral quasi-linearization approach for unsteady MHD boundary layer flow of casson fuid due to an impulsively stretching surface.
https://jhmtr.semnan.ac.ir/article_422.html
The present paper seeks to examine a numerical method of solution called spectra quasi-linearization method (SQLM) to the problem of unsteady MHD boundary layer flow of Casson fluid due to an impulsively stretching surface under the influence of a transverse magnetic field, which is an important physical phenomena in engineering applications.The study extends the previous models to account for a classical non-newtonian fluid called Casson fluid under the influence of a transverse magnetic field. The flow model is described in terms of a highly nonlinear partial differential equations. The method of solution Spectral quasi-linearization methods(SQLM) seeks to linearised the original system of PDEs using the Newton-Raphson based quasilinearization method (QLM). The numerical resultsfor the surface shear stress are compared with those of the analytical approach results, and they are found to be in good agreement. The flow controlling parameters are found to have a profound effect on the resulting flow profiles.It is observed that there is a smooth transition from the small time solution to the large time solution. The magnetic field significantly affects the flow field and skin friction coefficient. Indeed, skin friction coefficient is found to decreaserapidly, initially, in small time interval before attaining a steady state for large time.Radiation and Chemical Reaction Effects on Unsteady Coupled Heat and Mass Transfer by Free Convection from a Vertical Plate Embedded in Porous Media
https://jhmtr.semnan.ac.ir/article_3951.html
A numerical solution is presented for unsteady coupled heat and mass transfer by natural convection from a vertical plate embedded in a uniform porous medium in the presence of thermal radiation and chemical reaction effects. The governing equations for this problem were developed and non-dimensionalized and the resulting equations were then solved numerically by an explicit finite-difference scheme. The Roseland approximation is used to describe the radiative heat flux in the energy equation. The solutions at each time step have been found to reach the steady state solution properly. The numerical results are presented in the graphical form to show the effects of material parameters including the thermal buoyancy, the solutal buoyancy, Reynolds number, the inverse thermal radiation parameter, the permeability parameter, Prandtl number, Schmidt number and the chemical reaction parameter on the skin-friction coefficient, the Nusselt number, the Sherwood number, the velocity profiles, the temperature profiles and the concentration profiles in the boundary layer.Effect of Viscous Dissipation on Seady Natural Convection Heat and Mass Transfer in a Vertical Channel with Variable Viscosity and Thermal Conductivity
https://jhmtr.semnan.ac.ir/article_4260.html
In this study, effects of viscous dissipation and variable physical properties on steady natural convection heat and mass transfer flow through a vertical channel were investigated. The variability in viscosity and thermal conductivity are considered linear function of temperature. The governing equations are transformed into a set of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations and solved using Differential Transformation Method (DTM). Results obtained were compared with exact solution when some of the flow conditions were relaxed and results from DTM show an excellent agreement with the exact solution which was obtained analytically. The influence of the flow parameters on fluid temperature, concentration and velocity are presented graphically and discussed for variations of the governing parameters. From the course of investigation, it was found that increasing viscous dissipation causes fluid temperature, velocity as well as the skin friction on the surface of both channels to increase. However, increasing the fluid viscosity retards the fluid motion and causes fluid temperature to decrease.Time Dependent Heat Source Estimation by Conjugate Gradient Method in Multi-Layers System for Hyperthermia of Breast cancer
https://jhmtr.semnan.ac.ir/article_4411.html
Hyperthermia is a form of cancer treatment where the temperature of the tumor is elevated to levels that induce its elimination. This paper discusses using a heating power source to destroy breast cancer cells. The geometry of the breast tissue is represented as a hemisphere containing three layers; muscle, gland, and fat. The conjugate gradient method that is one of The most powerful iterative methods was used to solve the inverse heat conduction problem via the Pennes bioheat equation in an axisymmetric coordinate system, where the irregular region in the physical domain (r,z) was transformed into a rectangle in the computational domain (&xi;, &eta;). The performance of the algorithm was evaluated on a tested point located at the (5, 2) position, accounting for two temperature increments. The results confirmed the accuracy and viability of the algorithm, which makes this approach promising for the actual application for breast cancer treatment soon.Analytical Solution of Non-ideal Gaseous Slip Flow in Circular Sector Micro-channel
https://jhmtr.semnan.ac.ir/article_4455.html
AbstractAnalytical solutions of gaseous slip flow in a microchannel with different cross-sections play an important role in the understanding of the physical behavior of gases and other phenomena related to it. In this paper, the fully developed non-ideal gaseous slip flow in circular sector microchannel is investigated using the conformal mapping and the integral transform technique to obtain the analytical exact solution. Van der Waals equation is used as the equation of state for a non-ideal gas.It is developed the models for predicting the local and mean velocity, normalized Poiseuille number,and the ratio of density for conditions where the small radius of the circular sector cross-section is zero (r1*&rarr;0) and is the opposite of zero (r1*&ne;0, r1*=10&micro;m).Rarefication process and effects of wall slippage are important physical phenomena that are studied. The results show that the rarefication process depends on Knudsen number, and cross-section geometry. In order to validate the analytical solution, the results of the problem are compared to the analytical and numerical solutions. Good agreement between the present study and other solutions has confirmed.Developing a Model for Predicting the Outlet Gas Temperature of Natural Gas Pressure Reduction Stations to reduce Energy loss
https://jhmtr.semnan.ac.ir/article_4469.html
Natural gas stream must be preheated before pressure reduction takes place at natural gas pressure reduction station (PRS). It ensures that the natural gas stream remains above hydrate-formation zone. Heaters are used to prevent this problem. There is no precise method for determining the adjustment points of heaters; and the gas is usually heated to a temperature higher than the required temperature leading to the energy loss in heaters. In the present paper, the outlet gas temperature of regulator was predicted to prevent the energy dissipation by an applied analysis through thermodynamics equations and considering the deviation of natural gas from the ideal gas state using MATLAB software. The prediction of outlet temperature and application of control mechanisms made the temperature close to the standard temperature, so that avoiding the formation of destructive hydrate phenomenon, prevented the dissipation of 7983.7 standard cubic meter of natural gas and reduced 15.29 tone greenhouse gas emissions in a year at the PRS under study. The economic analysis of the proposed system has been carried out using Payback ratio method. The payback period of implementation of this control system is only less than one year. Results of comparison between the measured output temperature and calculated temperature through the software indicated an average difference of 9%.Forced convective heat transfer of non-Newtonian CMC-based CuO nanofluid in a tube
https://jhmtr.semnan.ac.ir/article_4545.html
In the present study, the thermal and rheological behavior of power-law non-Newtonian CMC-based CuO nanofluid in a tube is studied using ANSYS FLUENT software. Constant heat flux of 6000 W/m2 is subjected to the tube walls and the viscosity of nanofluid is assumed to be a function of shear rate, and temperature simultaneously. Two velocity profiles are considered as an inlet boundary condition: fully developed velocity and uniform velocity. Volume fractions of 0%-4%, and the Reynolds numbers of 600-1500 are considered in the simulations. For both velocity profiles, temperature and shear rate have considerable influence on the viscosity. Local heat transfer coefficient along the tube increases with the volume fraction, however, volume fractions less than 1.5% has an effect on local heat transfer slightly. It is revealed that as the Reynolds number enhances, local heat transfer and the average Nusselt number decrease. In conflict with previous investigations, the present results show that average Nusselt number is reduced by increasing the volume fraction of nanoparticles.Longitudinal vortex rolls in fluids
https://jhmtr.semnan.ac.ir/article_4648.html
This paper is concerned with longitudinal vortex rolls in fluids. The longutudinal rolls are observed in the sea surface, desert, and atmosphere. However, origin of the vortical motions are not clear, so that in this study laboratory experiments and theoretical analyses have been conducted to elucidate the formation mechanism of the longitudinal vortex rolls in laboratory . As the results, it becomes clear that these vortex rolls are generated by the interaction of the thermal convection and the shear force by the flow. That is, as far as these two effects are existed, irrespective of other conditions are different, quite similar longitudinal vortex rolls appear. Take for example, in dayly our lives when it is fine, we often ovserve longitudinal vortex rolls in the sky, when we look through the outside from the airplane window, we see the longitudinal rows of clouds, and when wo go on board , we notice the longitudinal wave lines on the sea surface.Modeling the Transient Absorption of Particulate Drugs in the Human Upper Airways
https://jhmtr.semnan.ac.ir/article_4753.html
Predicting the dynamics of aerosols in the respiratory tract is crucial for the analysis of toxic effects of particulate matters and to the respiratory targeted drug delivery. The present work focuses on evaluating the transient absorption of drug particles on the airway walls of the respiratory tract. For this purpose, simulations of airflow and particulate matters inside a three-dimensional model of respiratory airways were coupled to a one-dimensional drug absorption model. The drug absorption from mucus to the respiratory walls was studied using the transient mass transfer equations in a multilayer model. Different breathing rates of 5, 7.5, and 10 Lit/min were considered in the simulations. Particles with different sizes of 2, 5, 10, and 30&micro;m were released at the entrance of the oral cavity during the inspiration phase. The airflow velocity distribution, particle concentration, and flux of drugs at the interface of mucus-tissue were studied in detail. The transient absorption process that occurred over the breathing time considered of 4 s was evaluated. The results showed that the drug mass flow rate at the mucus-tissue interface and the drug concentration in the tissue layer decreases with time. Also, it was found that after inspiration, the location of the maximum concentration changes from mucus to the tissue layer.Statistical analysis of nanofluid heat transfer in a heat exchanger using Taguchi method
https://jhmtr.semnan.ac.ir/article_4708.html
In this study, a statistical experimental design method (the Taguchi method with L9 orthogonal array robust design) was performed to optimize experimental conditions such that to maximize the Nusselt number of Al2O3-water nanofluids in a double tube counter flow heat exchanger. The controllable factors were selected at three sets of conditions including temperature (45, 55, and 65℃), concentration (0, 0.05, and 0.15 vol.%), and flow rate (7, 9, and 11 l/min) of the nanofluid. Analysis of the obtained results revealed that the flow rate plays a key role in the Nusselt number of nanofluid with 63.541%. The optimal levels were defined for the three factors including the nanofluid concentration of 0.15 vol.%, the nanofluid temperature of 65℃,and the nanofluid flow rate of 11 l/min. The predicted Nusselt number of nanofluid under these conditions was 322.633. The confirmation test was also performed at the optimal conditions, by which good consistency was found between the experimental and the predicted results.Experimental evaluation of summer thermal comfort in various types of Sardab (Cellar): underground space in Iran vernacular houses
https://jhmtr.semnan.ac.ir/article_4714.html
This article aims to evaluate the effect of three types of Sardab (Cellars) on thermal comfort conditions. Two vernacular buildings in Yazd have been selected as case studies. In the Rasoulian house, a sardab with a water pond has been defined as case A and a Sardab without pond has been chosen as case B. Case C is a Sardab without pond in Mortaz house. Using experimental data, environmental parameters were analyzed for a month in two consecutive years. Using measured data, the values for Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) and Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied (PPD) have been calculated. The results show a considerable reduction in the air temperature (up to 20 oC) and an increase in the relative humidity of the air (up to 50%) in case A (the Sardab with pond). The sardabs without pond (Case B and C) presented lower efficiencies. Variations in daily temperatures have been presented in three cases with ceilings elevated at different heights. While the sardab that is placed completely underground presented the lowest temperature, in two other sardabs, the average air temperature was 2-3 degrees higher. According to the results, in a hot and dry climate, application of all sardab types, either with or without a pond, elevated or underground, would improve the thermal comfort condition and the energy efficiency of buildings.THREE DIMENSIONAL VISCOUS DISSIPATIVE FLOW OF NANOFLUIDS OVER A RIGA PLATE
https://jhmtr.semnan.ac.ir/article_4715.html
In this study, the physical perspectives on three-dimensional flow of base fluids with nanoparticles are comparatively investigated under the effect of viscous dissipation using Runge-Kutta 4th order numerical procedure. With the help of similarities transformations, the mathematical model which are described as partial differential equations are transmuted into ordinary differential equations. As said, the Runge-Kutta method, assisted by the shooting strategy, is designed to deal numerically with the resulting set of non-linear differential equations. Highlights of the flow-field and thermal field are illustrated quantitatively in plots. Results for local skin friction coefficients and local Nusselt number are reported and analyzed tabularly. The accuracy of present study is verified in comparison to existing literatures and we have identified an astounding understanding. Also, results indicate that, the velocity profile is enhanced by the modified Hartmann number and stretching ratio parameters. The nanofluid, in fact, has elevated skin friction values and is also more suitable for increasing the rate of heat transfer.Disinfection process with solar drying system
https://jhmtr.semnan.ac.ir/article_4716.html
COVID-19 has become a health threat around the world. Mask deficiency can be expected during a pandemic infection. The stability of viruses at different temperatures and relative humidity was assessed according to the type of contaminated surface material. With increasing temperature, the permanence of viruses decreases, and in proportion to the increase in temperature should not be damage to the quality of objects. Solar disinfection is one of the new methods of using renewable resources. By designing an integrated solar drying system with the phase change material, the internal temperature of the system reaches 54 ̊ C in April and the masks are disinfected with 3036 Wh/m2 internal cumulative solar radiation. By using the appropriate equipment in the system, the temperature difference inside and outside the system was reached 30 ̊C. A correlation coefficient of 95% in the MATLAB confirmed that the curve fit was good. The main purpose of this research is to identify appropriate solutions for disinfection and consultation with scientific literature. The results showed that the most appropriate hygienic and economical disinfection method was the use of solar energy.Thermodynamic Properties of Monatomic, Diatomic, and Polyatomic Gaseous Natural Refrigerants: A Molecular Dynamics Simulation
https://jhmtr.semnan.ac.ir/article_4740.html
Owing to their lower adverse environmental impacts, natural refrigerants have recently attracted a huge deal of attention. In this regard, the present study is aimed to evaluate the thermodynamic properties of different gaseous natural refrigerants at the molecular level using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In this context, the density (as a representative of structural features), enthalpy, and specific heat capacity (as representatives of energy properties) of several natural gaseous refrigerants including helium, nitrogen, methane, and ethane were assessed. Lennard-Jones potential was used for simulation of helium and nitrogen while AIREBO potential and OPLS-AA force-fields were employed for simulation of methane and ethane as polyatomic hydrocarbon refrigerants. Simulations are carried out at various temperatures above the boiling point and pressures of 1, 2, and 5 bar. MD results were in good agreement with the experimental data. Among the applied potentials, AIREBO potential offered results closer to the experimental data as compared with OPLS-AA force-field. The methane-ethane mixture was also addressed at different pressures and compared with the Peng-Robinson equation of state. The results of this study indicated that molecular dynamics can be employed as a reliable tool for predicting the thermodynamic properties of natural refrigerants. The results can be used in the refrigeration cycles.An Exact Analytical Solution for Gaseous Flow and Heat Transfer in Microtubes with Constant Wall Temperature
https://jhmtr.semnan.ac.ir/article_4861.html
It is known that slip flow and temperature jump phenomena play a significant role in micro-scale investigations. In this paper, exact analytical solutions for the flow and the convective heat transfer of gaseous flow passing through microtubes are derived for the first time in form of the Whittaker function. Here, it is assumed that both flow and heat transfer is fully developed in a microtube with constant wall temperature. The solution is obtained by considering the Navier-slip conditions for flow and heat transfer at walls. Here, a modal analysis technique is employed to achieve possible solutions for this scenario. Due to the eigenvalue form of governing equations, obtaining the closed-form exact solution for this problem is too difficult from the mathematical point of view and previous studies have been restricted to numerical and approximate series expansion solutions. In this study, an additional constraint is introduced using the definition of the mean temperature and employed to obtain possible eigenvalues related to this problem. Finally, by implementing a scaling law of the Nusselt number of laminar flow in closed conduits, an exact analytical solution for temperature distribution and the heat transfer are derived. It was found that increasing the Prandtl number increases the Nusselt number and increasing the Knudson number decreases the Nusselt number. Based on the obtained solution, the effect of Prandtl number and Knudsen number on heat convection of microtubes are studied in detail.Hematocrit effects on Blood flow through an overlapping stenosed artery with permeable wall
https://jhmtr.semnan.ac.ir/article_4955.html
ABSTRACTThis present study discusses the contributions of the presence of hematocrit level on wall shear stress and flow resistance in a tapered and overlapping stenosed artery with permeable wall. It enables the prediction of the main property of the physiological flows which plays an important role in biomedical investigations. The equation governing the flow in a tapered overlapping stenosed artery was simplified and solved analytically for resistance to flow and wall shear stress. The results highlight that the resistance to flow increases with an increase in either stenosis height or artery shapes while It decreases slightly with a rise in hematocrit level within normal range. Darcy number rises as the resistance to flow decreases for non-tapering, diverging tapering and converging tapering artery shapes. There is a significant hike in wall shear stress as slip parameter or Darcy number increases for diverging tapering, non-tapering and converging tapering. Also, the wall shear stress is increasing with an increase in stenosis height and a decrease in artery shapes.Application of phase change materials in refrigerator and freezer appliances: A comprehensive review
https://jhmtr.semnan.ac.ir/article_4986.html
Refrigerators and freezers are commonly used for food preservations. Also refrigerated truck trailers and open-type refrigerator display cabinets appliances used for keeping the food in special conditions. These appliances need to be low energy consumer with having good temperature conditions for keeping the food compartments in a desired temperature range. One solution to this end is using cold storage materials called phase change materials (PCMs). PCMs have high latent heat of fusion and phase change in a narrow temperature range which makes them possible solution in energy saving field. This paper reviews cold storage techniques in food preservation appliances such as refrigerators, freezers, refrigerated truck trailers, open-type refrigerated display cabinets. Different thermal storage techniques beside different materials used in this field are briefly introduced. The main drawback of PCMs are their low thermal conductivity which is enhanced using enhancement techniques such as fins and extended surfaces, PCM embedded metal foams, using nanoparticles and Multiple PCM method techniques are discussed. Finally, researches in the field of employing cold storage materials in food preservation devices are reported and tabulated.An axisymmetric Lattice Boltzmann Method Simulation of Forced Convection Heat Transfer for Water/Aluminum Oxide Nanofluid through a Tube under Constant Heat Flux on Wall
https://jhmtr.semnan.ac.ir/article_5040.html
Effects of different volumetric fractions and Reynolds number on forced convection heat transfer through water/aluminum oxide nanofluid in a horizontal tube are investigated. The flow regime is laminar and the method of simulation is the axisymmetric lattice Boltzmann method (ALBM). The profiles of velocity and temperature were uniform at the input section, on the tube walls the uniform heat flux was considered; moreover, hydrodynamic, and thermal development conditions at the output section were applied. It was observed that an increase in the volumetric concentration of the nanoparticles added to the forced convection heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number of the nanofluid, as compared to the base fluid. For a volumetric fraction of 5% and Reynolds number of 100 at the input section of the tube (0.1&le;X/D&le;7) the forced convection heat transfer coefficient increased by 24.165%, while an average increase of 21.361% was observed along the entire length of the tube (0&le;x/D&le;30). A comparison between the improvements in heat transfer at the two input temperatures, it was found that the forced convection heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number will increase further at the lower input temperature; Moreover, with increasing the Reynolds number, the percent improvements in forced convention heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number increased.Simulation and Comparison of Non-Newtonian Fluid Models Using LBM in a Cavity
https://jhmtr.semnan.ac.ir/article_5041.html
In this paper, simulation of non-Newtonian fluid flow in a two-dimension lid driven cavity is investigated. In this simulation Lattice Boltzmann method is used to solve computational fluid dynamics equations numerically. The particular approach of this research is to simulate non-Newtonian fluid flow by Sisko and Hershel Bulkley extended models for the first time beside other non-Newtonian models, by means of Lattice Boltzmann technique. The results of different models including x and y- velocity profiles and streamlines were presented. Then the simulation results of different non-Newtonian fluid flow by Sisko and Hershel Bulkley extended models have been compared with Power Law, Herschel Bulkley and Bingham plastic models. Also, the effect of the Reynolds Number and Power Law parameter (n) on the velocity profiles were studied. Increase of n parameter and Reynolds number leads to moving center of main vortex toward center of cavity. By increasing the parameter n, the maximum value of velocity increases and this indicates while n parameter is increased, vortex strength is excessedThe Effects of Operational Parameters on the Flow Characteristics in Annular Space During Under-Balanced Drilling Operations
https://jhmtr.semnan.ac.ir/article_5098.html
In this research, gas-liquid-solid three-phase flow in the annulus during under-balanced drilling operations is simulated numerically. One-dimensional form of steady-state governing equations including mass and momentum conservation equations for each phase, gas equation of state, and saturation constraint equation in the Eulerian frame of reference are solved by a proposed algorithm. The computational code is validated by using experimental data from a real well, gas-liquid two-fluid numerical simulation, and also some mechanistic models of WellFlo software. Moreover, the results are compared with the experimental data from a laboratory study. The numerical code succeeds in predicting bottom hole pressure and obtaining the characteristic flow behavior during under-balanced drilling. Due to the importance of controlling flow characteristics during the drilling operations, the effects of change in the injected liquid flow rate, gas injection flow rate, choke pressure on the gas, liquid, and solid volume fractions, as well as gas, liquid, and solid velocity distributions along with the annulus, are investigated. According to the obtained results, the effects of liquid injection flow rate and injected gas flow rate on the flow characteristics are decreased along the annulus in the flow direction, but the effects of choke pressure on the flow characteristics are increased along the annulus in the flow direction. Consequently, to change the flow characteristics in the wellhead area, it is better to change the choke pressure and to affect the flow characteristics in the bottom-hole area, it is preferred to change the gas and liquid injection flow rate. In other words, depending on the required situation of flow characteristic changes, the appropriate operational parameter can be used.A comparison of catalyst behavior of Samaria Modified Ni Catalyst Supported on Mesoporous Silica and Carbon for Methane CO2 Reforming
https://jhmtr.semnan.ac.ir/article_5112.html
The Samaria-promoted of 10wt% Nickel-CMK-3 and 10wt% Nickel-SBA-15 were synthesized by the Samarium (3wt %) addition, and using the two-solvent impregnation technique. The N2 adsorption-desorption, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray analysis, x-ray diffraction and the transmission electron microscopy analysis were used to characterize of the Samaria modiﬁed and unmodified catalysts. Furthermore, the catalyst performances were tested under the carbon dioxide reforming of methane. As a result, the x-ray diffraction and surface area investigation revealed that the addition of Samaria (Sm2O3) into the Nickel (Ni) catalysts/silica (SBA-15) and carbon (CMK-3) mesostructures decreased the particles size and surface area according to the TEM micrographs; however, mproved the catalysts activity and catalysts stability. The role of investigation of support in the dry reforming reaction indicated that the activity and catalysts stability of the Ni/CMK-3 catalysts were lower than the Ni/SBA-15 catalysts due to the agglomeration of Ni nanoparticles on the CMK-3 support, the sintering of Ni nanoparticles, the burning of the mesoporous carbon support in the higher temperatures and the blocking of Ni nanoparticles into the deposited carbon nanotubes (CNTs).