Experimental evaluation of summer thermal comfort in various types of Sardab (Cellar): underground space in Iran vernacular houses

Document Type : Full Lenght Research Article

Authors

1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yasouj University, Yasouj, Iran.

2 Department of Architecture, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran

Abstract

This article aims to evaluate the effect of three types of Sardab (Cellars) on thermal comfort conditions. Two vernacular buildings in Yazd have been selected as case studies. In the Rasoulian house, a sardab with a water pond has been defined as case A and a Sardab without pond has been chosen as case B. Case C is a Sardab without pond in Mortaz house. Using experimental data, environmental parameters were analyzed for a month in two consecutive years. Using measured data, the values for Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) and Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied (PPD) have been calculated. The results show a considerable reduction in the air temperature (up to 20 oC) and an increase in the relative humidity of the air (up to 50%) in case A (the Sardab with pond). The sardabs without pond (Case B and C) presented lower efficiencies. Variations in daily temperatures have been presented in three cases with ceilings elevated at different heights. While the sardab that is placed completely underground presented the lowest temperature, in two other sardabs, the average air temperature was 2-3 degrees higher. According to the results, in a hot and dry climate, application of all sardab types, either with or without a pond, elevated or underground, would improve the thermal comfort condition and the energy efficiency of buildings.

Keywords

Main Subjects


[1] C.A. Balaras, A.G. Gaglia, E. Georgopoulou, S.
Mirasgedis, Y. Sarafidis, D.P. Lalas, European
residential buildings and empirical
assessment of the Hellenic building stock,
energy consumption, emissions and
potential energy savings, Build. Environ,
42(3), 1298-1314, (2007).
[2] L. Gustavsson, R. Sathre, Variability in energy
and carbon dioxide balances of wood and
concrete building materials, Build. Environ,
41(7), 940-951, (2006).
[3] R. Moosavi, F. Gheybi, Office Buildings Glass
Facades Excitation under Hot and Dry
Climates: A Numerical and Experimental
Study, Iranian Journal of Energy, 20(4), 5-25,
(2018).
[4] L. Pérez-Lombard, J. Ortiz, C. Pout, A review
on buildings energy consumption
information, Energy and buildings, 40(3),
394-398, (2008).
[5] M.O. Silvia, C.G. Ignacio, Comparison of
hygro-thermal conditions in underground
wine cellars from a Spanish area, Build.
Environ, 40(10), 1384-1394, (2005).
[6] S.A. Alkaff, S.C. Sim, M.N. Ervina Efzan, A
review of underground building towards
thermal energy efficiency and sustainable
development, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev,
60, 692-713, (2016).
[7] S. Martín Ocaña, I.C. Guerrero, Comparison of
10 R. Moosavi / JHMTR 8 (2021) 1- 11
analytical and on site temperature results on Spanish traditional wine cellars, Appl. Therm. Eng. 26(7), 700-708, (2006).
[8] F.R. Mazarrón, J. Cid-Falceto, I. Cañas, An assessment of using ground thermal inertia as passive thermal technique in the wine industry around the world, Appl. Therm. Eng. 33, 54-61, (2012).
[9] F. Tinti, A. Barbaresi, S. Benni, D. Torreggiani, R. Bruno, P. Tassinari, Experimental analysis of thermal interaction between wine cellar and underground, Energy Build. 104, 275-286, (2015).
[10] F. Tinti, A. Barbaresi, S. Benni, D. Torreggiani, R. Bruno, P. Tassinari, Experimental analysis of shallow underground temperature for the assessment of energy efficiency potential of underground wine cellars, Energy Build. 80, 451-460, (2014).
[11] M. Casals, M. Gangolells, N. Forcada, M. Macarulla, A. Giretti, A breakdown of energy consumption in an underground station, Energy Build. 78, 89-97, (2014).
[12] G. Scaglia, F. di Giorgio Martini, C. Maltese, L.M. Degrassi, Trattati di architettura ingegneria e arte militare, Art Bull, (1970).
[13] S. Andolsun, C.H. Culp, J. Haberl, M.J. Witte, EnergyPlus vs. DOE-2.1e: The effect of ground-coupling on energy use of a code house with basement in a hot-humid climate, Energy Build. 43(7), 1663-1675, (2011).
[14] K. Ip, A. Miller, Thermal behaviour of an earth-sheltered autonomous building - The Brighton Earthship, Renew. Energy. 34(9), 2037-2043, (2009).
[15] C.A. Balaras, K. Droutsa, E. Dascalaki, S. Kontoyiannidis, Heating energy consumption and resulting environmental impact of European apartment buildings, Energy Build. 37(5), 429-442, (2005).
[16] N.K. Garg, T. Oreszczyn, Energy efficiency in building envelopes through ground integration, Sol. Energy. 53(5), 427-430, (1994).
[17] Q. de Jong van Lier, A. Durigon, Soil thermal diffusivity estimated from data of soil temperature and single soil component properties, Rev. Bras. Ciência Do Solo. 37(1), 106-112, (2013).
[18] J.M.A. Márquez, M.Á.M. Bohórquez, S.G. Melgar, Ground thermal diffusivity calculation by direct soil temperature measurement. application to very low enthalpy geothermal energy systems, Sensors, 16(3), 306, (2016).
[19] A.A. Al-Temeemi, D.J. Harris, A guideline for assessing the suitability of earth-sheltered mass-housing in hot-arid climates, Energy Build. 36(3), 251-260, (2004).
[20] A. Buzăianu, I. Csáki, P. Moţoiu, G. Popescu, I. Thorbjornsson, K.R. Ragnarsodottir, S. Guðlaugsson, D. Goubmunson, Recent Advances of the Basic Concepts in Geothermal Turbines of Low and High Enthalpy, Adv. Mater. Res. 1114, 233-238, (2015).
[21] C. Carmo, B. Elmegaard, M.P. Nielsen, N. Detlefsen, Empirical platform data analysis to investigate how heat pumps operate in real-life conditions, In Proceedings of the 24th Iir International Congress of Refrigeration (ICR2015), Yokohama, Japan, 16-22, (2015).
[22] F. Droulia, S. Lykoudis, I. Tsiros, N. Alvertos, E. Akylas, I. Garofalakis, Ground temperature estimations using simplified analytical and semi-empirical approaches, Sol. Energy. 83(2), 211-219, (2009).
[23] S. Graf, F. Lanzerath, A. Sapienza, A. Frazzica, A. Freni, A. Bardow, Prediction of SCP and COP for adsorption heat pumps and chillers by combining the large-temperature-jump method and dynamic modeling, Appl. Therm. Eng. 98, 900-909, (2016).
[24] M.N. Bahadori, Passive Cooling Systems in Iranian Architecture, Sci. Am. 238(2), 144-155, (1978).
[25] F. Soflaei, M. Shokouhian, W. Zhu, Socio-environmental sustainability in traditional courtyard houses of Iran and China, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 69, 1147-1169, (2017).
[26] M. Khalili, S. Amindeldar, Traditional solutions in low energy buildings of hot-arid regions of Iran, Sustain. Cities Soc. 13, 171-181, (2014).
[27] M.N. Bahadori, F. Haghighat, Long-term storage of chilled water in cisterns in hot, arid regions, Build. Environ. 23(1), 29-37, (1988).
[28] M.N. Bahadori, Natural production, storage, and utilization of ice in deep ponds for summer air conditioning, Sol. Energy. 23(1), 29-37, (1985).
[29] H. Samsam-Khayani, M. R. Tavakoli, S. Mohammadshahi, M. Nili-Ahmadabadi, Numerical study of effects of Shavadoon connections (a vernacular architectural pattern) on improvement of natural ventilation, Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 82, 170-181, (2018).
[30] A. Foruzanmehr, Basements of vernacular earth dwellings in Iran: prominent passive cooling systems or only storage spaces?, International Journal of Urban Sustainable Development, 7(2), 232-244, (2015).
[31] F. A. Tafti, M. Rezaeian, S. E. Razavi, Sunken courtyards as educational environments: Occupant's perception and environmental
R. Moosavi / JHMTR 8 (2021) 1- 11 11
satisfaction, Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 78, 124-134, (2018).
[32] A. H. Jørgensen, Ice houses of Iran: where, how, why. Mazda Publishers, Costa Mesa, California, (2012).
[33] R.K. Goel, B. Singh, J. Zhao, Underground infrastructures: planning, design, and construction. Butterworth-Heinemann, 2012.
[34] A. Foruzanmehr, M. Vellinga, Vernacular architecture: Questions of comfort and practicability, Build. Res. Inf. 39(3), 274-285 (2011).
[35] ISO, ISO 7730: Ergonomics of the thermal environment Analytical determination and interpretation of thermal comfort using calculation of the PMV and PPD indices and local thermal comfort criteria, Management. (2005).
[36] H. Saffari, R. Moosavi, E. Gholami, and N. M. Nouri, The effect of bubble on pressure drop reduction in helical coil, Experimental
thermal and fluid science, 51, 251-256 (2013).
[37] K. Javaherdeh, A. Vaisi, R. Moosavi, and M. Esmaeilpour, Experimental and numerical investigations on louvered fin-and-tube heat exchanger with variable geometrical parameters, Journal of Thermal Science and Engineering Applications, 9 (2), 024501, (2017).
[38] A. Vaisi, R. Moosavi, M. Lashkari, and M. M. Soltani, Experimental investigation of perforated twisted tapes turbulator on thermal performance in double pipe heat exchangers, Chemical Engineering and Processing-Process Intensification, 154, 108028, (2020).
[39] X. Ma, B. Cheng, G. Peng, W. Liu, A numerical simulation of transient heat flow in double layer wall sticking lining envelope of shallow earth sheltered buildings, in: Proc. 2009 Int. Jt. Conf. Comput. Sci. Optim. CSO 2009, (2009).