Magnetohydrodynamics and Aspect Ratio Effects on Double Diffusive Mixed Convection and Their Prediction: Linear Regression Model

Document Type : Full Lenght Research Article

Authors

1 School of Mechanical Engineering, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, Tamilnadu, INDIA-632014

2 University of Technology and Applied Sciences, PO Box 74, Al-Khuwair Postal code 133, Sultanate of Oman

3 Department of Physics, Auxilium College (Autonomous), Tamilnadu, INDIA-632006

4 Gopalan College of Engineering and Management, Bangalore, Karnataka, India, 560048

Abstract

Magnetohydrodynamic application in the biomedical field made the researcher work more on this field in recent years. The major application of this concept is in scanning using laser beams, delivering a drug to the targeted points, cancer treatment, enhancing image contrast, etc. These applications are depending on the flow and heat transfer properties of the magnetic conducting fluid and on the geometry of the flow field. An increase in the demand for the miniature in the shape and size of the clinical devices attracts the researcher to work more on design optimization. In this study optimization of magnetic field strength, geometry of domain, Prandtl number, Reynolds number for a steady, incompressible double-diffusive flow is performed using Taguchi and Analysis of variance technique. Linear regression model is used to predict the average Nusselt and Sherwood numbers. Numerical simulations were performed using finite volume method (FVM) based numerical techniques.  Experiments are designed based on Taguchi orthogonal array and FVM based numerical codes were used to obtain the results. Results show that an increase in the aspect ratio from to 0.5 to 2.0 improves the heat transfer rate by 62.0% and the mass transfer rate by 38.5%. As the Prandtl number increases from 0.7 to 13.0, heat transfer rate increases by 80.0% and mass transfer by 75.0%. This specific study could be applied in designing of solar ponds and to investigate heat and mass transfer effects during cancer treatments.

Keywords

Main Subjects


  • M. Rodrigues, C. Biserni, C.C. de Escobar, L.A.O. Rocha, L.A. Isoldi, E.D. dos Santosa, Geometric optimization of a lid-driven cavity with two rectangular intrusions under mixed convection heat transfer: A numerical investigation motivated by constructal design, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 117, 104759, (2020)
  • Baag, S.R. Mishra, G.C. Dash, M.R.Acharya, Numerical investigation on MHD micropolar fluid flow toward a stagnation point on a vertical surface with heat source and chemical reaction, Journal of King Saud University - Engineering Sciences, 29(1), 75–83, (2017).
  • M. Khader, and A.M. Megahed, Numerical simulation using the finite difference method for the flow and heat transfer in a thin liquid film over an unsteady stretching sheet in a saturated porous medium in the presence of thermal radiation, Journal of King Saud University - Engineering Sciences, 25(1), 29–34, (2013).
  • Li, A.K. Hussein, O.Younis, S.Rostami, W. He, Effect of alumina nano-powder on the natural convection of water under the influence of a magnetic field in a cavity and optimization using RMS: Using empirical correlations for the thermal conductivity and a sensitivity analysis, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 112, 104497, (2020).
  • Iyi, and R. Hasan, Numerical investigation of the effect of moisture on buoyancy-driven low turbulence flow in an enclosed cavity, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 136, 543–554, (2019).
  • Li, W. Zhu, and H. He, Numerical optimization on microchannel flow and heat transfer performance based on field synergy principle, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 130, 375–385, (2019).
  • Mohammadi, A. A, Reza, N. Farouji, M.P. Fard, An optimization of heat transfer of nanofluid flow in a helically coiled pipe using Taguchi method, Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 138(2), 1779–1792, (2019).
  • Srinivas, T. Malathy, A.S. Reddy, A note on thermal-diffusion and chemical reaction effects on MHD pulsating flow in a porous channel with slip and convective boundary conditions, Journal of King Saud University - Engineering Sciences, 28(2), 213–221, (2016)
  • Nath and M. Krishnan, Optimization of double diffusive mixed convection in a BFS channel filled with Alumina nanoparticle using Taguchi method and utility concept, Scientific Reports, Springer US, 9(1), 1–19, (2019).
  • Raei, Statistical analysis of nanofluid heat transfer in a heat exchanger using Taguchi method, Journal of heat and mass transfer research, 8(1),29–38, (2021).
  • Kishore, A.M. Sanghadasa S. Priya, Optimization of segmented thermoelectric generator using Taguchi and ANOVA techniques, Scientific Reports. Springer US, 7(1), 1–15, (2017).
  • Iftikhar, D. Baleanu, M.B. Riaz, S. M. Husnine, Heat and mass transfer of natural convective flow with slanted magnetic field via fractional operators, Journal of Applied and Computational Mechanics, 7(1), 189–212, (2021).
  • Hatami, D. Song, D. Jing, Optimization of a circular-wavy cavity filled by nanofluid under the natural convection heat transfer condition, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 98, 758–767, (2016).
  • Kumara, J.B. Joshi, A.K. Nayak, P.K. Vijayan, 3D CFD simulations of air cooled condenser-III: Thermal-hydraulic characteristics and design optimization under forced convection conditions, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 93, 1227–1247, (2016).
  • Mamourian, K.M. Shirvan, R.Ellahi, A.B. Rahimia, Optimization of mixed convection heat transfer with entropy generation in a wavy surface square lid-driven cavity by means of Taguchi approach, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 102, 544–554, (2016).
  • M. Shirvan, K. M, M. Mamourian, R. Ellahi, Numerical investigation and optimization of mixed convection in ventilated square cavity filled with nanofluid of different inlet and outlet port, International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat and Fluid Flow, 27(9), 2053–2069, (2017).
  • Soleimani, D.D. Ganji, M. Gorji, H.Bararnia, E.Ghasemi, Optimal location of a pair heat source-sink in an enclosed square cavity with natural convection through PSO algorithm, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 38(5), 652–658, (2011).
  • R. Madadi, and C. Balaji, Optimization of the location of multiple discrete heat sources in a ventilated cavity using artificial neural networks and micro genetic algorithm, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 51(9–10), 2299–2312, (2008).
  • Paulo, G. Menon, M.D. Ramos, Mixed convection study in a ventilated square cavity using nanofluids, Journal of heat and mass transfer research, 6(2), 143–153, (2019).
  • Alinejad and J.A. Esfahani, Taguchi design of three dimensional simulations for optimization of turbulent mixed convection in a cavity, Meccanica, 52(4–5), pp. 925–938, (2017).
  • Gorobets, V. Trokhaniak, Y. Bohdan, I. Antypov, Numerical Modeling of Heat Transfer and Hydrodynamics in Compact Shifted Arrangement Small Diameter Tube Bundles, Journal of Applied and Computational Mechanics, 7(1), pp. 292–301.
  • Hatami, J. Zhou, J. Geng, D. Song, D. Jing, Optimization of a lid-driven T-shaped porous cavity to improve the nanofluids mixed convection heat transfer, Journal of Molecular Liquids, 231, 620–631, (2017).
  • K. Mathew, and T.K. Hotta, Numerical investigation on optimal arrangement of IC chips mounted on a SMPS board cooled under mixed convection, Thermal Science and Engineering Progress, 7, 221–229, (2018).
  • Pichandi and S. Anbalagan, Natural convection heat transfer and fluid flow analysis in a 2D square enclosure with sinusoidal wave and different convection mechanism, International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat and Fluid Flow, 28(9), 2158–2188, (2018).
  • Mirzakhanlari, K.M. Shirvan, M. Mamourian, Ali J.Chamkha, Increment of mixed convection heat transfer and decrement of drag coefficient in a lid-driven nanofluid-filled cavity with a conductive rotating circular cylinder at different horizontal locations: A sensitivity analysis, Powder Technology, 305, 495–508, (2017).
  • H. Pordanjani, S.M. Vahedi, S. Aghakhani, M. Afrand, H.F. Öztop, N.A. Hamdeh, Effect of magnetic field on mixed convection and entropy generation of hybrid nanofluid in an inclined enclosure: Sensitivity analysis and optimization, European Physical Journal Plus, 134(8), 412, (2019).
  • Behbahan, A. Noghrehabadi, C.P. Wong, I. Pop, M.B. Nejad, Investigation of enclosure aspect ratio effects on melting heat transfer characteristics of metal foam/phase change material composites, International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat and Fluid Flow, 29(9), 2994–3011, (2019).
  • Selimefendigil and H.F. Öztop, Modeling and optimization of MHD mixed convection in a lid-driven trapezoidal cavity filled with alumina–water nanofluid: Effects of electrical conductivity models, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences. 136, 264–278, (2018).
  • V.V. Sudhakar, C. Balaji, S.P. Venkateshan, Optimal configuration of discrete heat sources in a vertical duct under conjugate mixed convection using artificial neural networks, International Journal of Thermal Sciences. 48(5), 881–890, (2009).
  • Tassone, MHD mixed convection flow in the WCLL: Heat transfer analysis and cooling system optimization, Fusion Engineering and Design, 146, 809–813, (2019).
  • Yigit and N. Chakraborty, Influences of aspect ratio and wall boundary condition on laminar Rayleigh-Bénard convection of Bingham fluids in rectangular enclosures, International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat and Fluid Flow, 27(2), 310–333, (2017).
  • K. Hamzah, F.H. Ali, M. Hatami, D. Jing, Effect of Two Baffles on MHD Natural Convection in U-Shape Superposed by Solid Nanoparticle having Different Shapes, Journal of Applied and Computational Mechanics, 6, 1200–1209, (2020).
  • H. Yang and R.H. Yeh, Optimization of fin arrays in an inclined channel for mixed convection, Applied Thermal Engineering, 148(482), 963–976, (2019).
  • M. Al-Amiri, K.M. Khanafer, Numerical simulation of double-diffusive mixed convection within a rotating horizontal annulus, International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 45(6), 567–578, (2006).
  • Izadi, R. Mohebbi, A. Chamkha, I. Pop, Effects of cavity and heat source aspect ratios on natural convection of a nanofluid in a C-shaped cavity using Lattice Boltzmann method, International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat and Fluid Flow, 28(8), 1930–1955, (2018).
  • Béghein, F. Haghighat, F. Allard, Numerical study of double-diffusive natural convection in a square cavity, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 35(4), 833–846, (1992).
  • M. Alsobaai, Thermal cracking of petroleum residue oil using three level factorial design, Journal of King Saud University - Engineering Sciences, 25(1), 21–28, (2013).
  • Arun, A. Satheesh, Mesoscopic analysis of heatline and massline during double-diffusive MHD natural convection in an inclined cavity, Chinese Journal of Physics. 56(5), 2155–2172, (2018).
  • Aljabair, A.L.Ekaid, S.H. Ibrahim, I. Alesbe, Heliyon Mixed convection in sinusoidal lid driven cavity with non-uniform temperature distribution on the wall utilizing nano fluid, Heliyon, 7, e06907, (2021).
  • A. Teamah, A.F. Elsafty, E.Z. Massoud, Numerical simulation of double-diffusive natural convective flow in an inclined rectangular enclosure in the presence of magnetic field and heat source, International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 52(1), 161–175, (2012).
  • Moolya, A. Satheesh, Role of magnetic field and cavity inclination on double diffusive mixed convection in rectangular enclosed domain, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer. 118, 104814, (2020).
  • Moolya, A. Satheesh, Optimization of the effect of Prandtl number, inclination angle, magnetic field, and Richardson number on double-diffusive mixed convection flow in a rectangular domain, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 126, 105358, (2021).
  • J. Hasan, A. K. Azad, Z. Islam, R. Hossain, and M. M. Rahman, “Periodic Unsteady Natural Convection on CNT Nano-powder Liquid in a Triangular Shaped Mechanical Chamber,” Int. J. Thermofluids. 15, 100181, (2022)
  • S. K. Raju, N. A. Ahammad, K. Sajjan, N. A. Shah, S. J. Yook, and M. D. Kumar, “Nonlinear movements of axisymmetric ternary hybrid nanofluids in a thermally radiated expanding or contracting permeable Darcy Walls with different shapes and densities: Simple linear regression,” Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transf., 135, 106110, (2022)
  • Hossain, A. K. Azad, M. J. Hasan, and M. M. Rahman, “Radiation effect on unsteady MHD mixed convection of kerosene oil-based CNT nanofluid using finite element analysis,” Alexandria Eng. J. 61 (11) ,8525–8543, (2022)
  • Priyadharshini, M. V. Archana, N. A. Ahammad, C. S. K. Raju, S. jin Yook, and N. A. Shah, “Gradient descent machine learning regression for MHD flow: Metallurgy process,” Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transf., 138, 106307, (2022).
  • K. Azad et al., “Numerical study on heat and mass transfer characteristics in a confined enclosure with variable buoyancy ratio,” Results Eng., 15, 100569, (2022).
  • Kavya, V. Nagendramma, N. A. Ahammad, S. Ahmad, C. S. K. Raju, and N. A. Shah, “Magnetic-hybrid nanoparticles with stretching/shrinking cylinder in a suspension of MoS4 and copper nanoparticles,” Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transf., 136, 106150, (2022)
  • H. Ji, S.Y. Kim, J.M. Hyun, Transient mixed convection in an enclosure driven by a sliding lid, 629–638, (2007).
  • Suhas V. Patankar, Numerical Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow, Series in computational methods in mechanics and thermal sciences (1980).
  • Hussain, S.E. Ahmed, T. Akbar, Entropy generation analysis in MHD mixed convection of hybrid nanofluid in an open cavity with a horizontal channel containing an adiabatic obstacle, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 114, 1054–1066, (2017).
  • H.R. Kefayati, M.G. Bandpy, H. Sajjadi, D.D. Ganji, Lattice Boltzmann simulation of MHD mixed convection in a lid-driven square cavity with linearly heated wall, Scientia Iranica, 19(4), pp. 1053–1065, (2012).
  • A. Sheremet, I. Pop, Mixed convection in a lid-driven square cavity filled by a nanofluid: Buongiorno’s mathematical model, Applied Mathematics and Computation, 266, 792–808, (2015).
  • A.R. Sharif, Laminar mixed convection in shallow inclined driven cavities with hot moving lid on top and cooled from bottom, Applied Thermal Engineering, 27(5–6), 1036–1042, (2007).
  • Iwatsu, J.M. Hyun, K. Kuwahara, Mixed convection in a driven cavity with a stable vertical temperature gradient, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 36(6), 1601–1608, (1993).
  • A. Waheed, Mixed convective heat transfer in rectangular enclosures driven by a continuously moving horizontal plate, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 52(21–22), 5055–5063, (2009).
  • Joardar, N. Das, G. Sutradhar, An experimental study of effect of process parameters in turning of LM6/SiCP metal matrix composite and its prediction using response surface methodology, International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology, 3(8), 132–141, (2012).
  • D. Farahani, Efficacy of Magnetic Field on Heat Transfer of Nanofluid Flow in Flatten Tube with Porous Medium, J. Heat Mass Transf. Res., 9, 99–106, (2022).
  • K. Senejani and Z. Baniamerian, Multi Objective Optimization of Shell & Tube Heat Exchanger by Genetic, Particle Swarm and Jaya Optimization Algorithms: Assessment of Nanofluids as the Coolant, J. Heat Mass Transf. Res., 9, (1), 1–16, (2022).