Numerical Study on Thermo-Hydraulic Performances of Hybrid Nanofluids Flowing through a Corrugated Channel with Metal Foam

Document Type : Full Lenght Research Article


Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran


In this study, a novel design was proposed for enhancing heat transfer in a channel with metal foam, corrugated walls, and hybrid nanofluids. The numerical analysis of hybrid nanofluids (MWCNTs+TiO2) with DW (distillate water) as the base fluid was performed in a channel with triangular corrugations and open metal foam. The mass fractions of hybrid nanofluids (mixture of DW and MWCNTs+TiO2) were set at 0.025%, 0.05%, and 0.075%. The effects of metal foam porosity and PPI (pore density), as well as different Reynolds numbers (ranging from 7000 to 13000), on thermal performance were investigated. The results showed that the heat transfer enhancement with metal foam increased by 130% for all hybrid nanofluids. Moreover, the heat transfer enhancement in metal foam with a porosity of 0.9 was 9.8% higher than that of metal foam with a porosity of 0.99. Additionally, quadratic correlations for the average Nusselt number (Nua) were proposed for all hybrid nanofluids, taking into account PPI, porosity, and Reynolds numbers as variables. Finally, the optimum values of Nua for all hybrid nanofluids were determined, providing valuable insights for optimizing the heat transfer performance in this configuration.


Main Subjects

  1. Sheng Bu, C., Yin Liu, D., Ping Chen, X., Liang, C., Feng Duan, Y., Bo Duan, L., 2013. Modeling and Coupling Particle Scale Heat Transfer with DEM through Heat Transfer Mechanisms. Numerical Heat Transfer, Part A: Applications, 64(1), pp. 56-71.
  2. Meyer, J. P., 2013. Heat Transfer, Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics—HEFAT2011. Heat Transfer Engineering, 34(14), pp. 1141-1146.
  3. Kim, J. S., Park, B. K., Lee, J. S., 2009. Natural Convection Heat Transfer Around Microfin Arrays. Experimental Heat Transfer, 21(1), pp. 55-72.
  4. Wang, H., Guo, L., 2019. Volumetric Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient Model for Metal Foams. Heat Transfer Engineering, 40(5-6), pp. 464-475.
  5. Leong, K. C., Jin, L. W., 2006. Effect of oscillatory frequency on heat transfer in metal foam heat sinks of various pore densities. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 49(3-4), pp. 671-681.
  6. Lua, W., Zhaoab, C. Y., Tassoua, S. A., 2006. Thermal analysis on metal-foam filled heat exchangers. Part I: Metal-foam filled pipes. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 49(15-16), pp. 2751-2761.
  7. Yu, Q., Straatmana, A. G., Thompsonb, B. E., 2006. Carbon-foam finned tubes in air–water heat exchangers. Applied Thermal Engineering, 26(2-3), pp. 131-143.
  8. Laurencelle, F., Goyette, J., 2007. Simulation of heat transfer in a metal hydride reactor with aluminium foam. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 32(14), pp. 2957-2964.
  9. Du, Y. P., Qua, Z. G., Zhao, C. Y., Tao, W. Q., 2010. Numerical study of conjugated heat transfer in metal foam filled double-pipe. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 53(21-22), pp. 4899-4907.
  10. Khadangi, M., Etemad, M., Bagheri, R., 2011. Free convection heat transfer of non-Newtonian nanofluids under constant heat flux condition. International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 38(10), pp. 1449-1454.
  11. Su, F., Ma, X., Lan, Z., 2011. The effect of carbon nanotubes on the physical properties of a binary nanofluid. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, 42(2), pp. 252-257.
  12. Yu, L., Liu, D., Botz, F., 2012. Laminar convective heat transfer of alumina-polyalphaolefin nanofluids containing spherical and non-spherical nanoparticles. Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 37, pp. 72-83.
  13. PERARASU, V. T., ARIVAZHAGAN, M., SIVASHANMUGAM, P., 2012. Heat transfer of TiO2/water nanofluid in a coiled agitated vessel with propeller. Journal of Hydrodynamics, Ser. B, 24(6), pp. 942-950.
  14. Ijam, A., Saidur, R., 2012. Nanofluid as a coolant for electronic devices (cooling of electronic devices). Applied Thermal Engineering, 32, pp. 76-82.
  15. Wang, P. Y., Chen, X. J., Liu, Z. H., Liu, Y. P., 2012. Application of nanofluid in an inclined mesh wicked heat pipes. Thermochimica Acta, 539, pp. 100-108.
  16. Bai, C., Wang, L., 2013. Two nanofluid configurations for heat conduction systems: performance comparison. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 66, pp. 632-642.
  17. Shaha, J., Kumarb, S., Ranjanc, M., Sonvanea, Y., Tharejab, P., Guptad, S. K., 2018. The effect of filler geometry on thermo-optical and rheological properties of CuO nanofluid. Journal of Molecular Liquids, 272, pp. 668-675.
  18. Rekhaa, M. B., Sarrisb, I. E., Madhukesh, J. K., Raghunatha, K. R., Prasannakumaraa, B. C., 2022. Impact of Thermophoretic particle deposition on heat transfer and nanofluid flow through different geometries: an application to solar energy. Chinese Journal of Physics, 2022, 1921.
  19. Gariaa, R., Rawatb, S. K., Kumara, M., Yaseena, M., 2021. Hybrid nanofluid flow over two different geometries with Cattaneo–Christov heat flux model and heat generation: A model with correlation coefficient and probable error. Chinese Journal of Physics, 74, 2021, pp. 421-439.
  20. Hamida, M. B. B., Hatamid, M., 2021. Investigation of heated fins geometries on the heat transfer of a channel filled by hybrid nanofluids under the electric field. Case Studies in Thermal Engineering, 28, 101450.
  21. Zachár, A., 2010. Analysis of coiled-tube heat exchangers to improve heat transfer rate with spirally corrugated wall. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 53(19-20), pp. 3928-3939.
  22. Hekmat, M., Saharkhiz, S., 2022. Effect of Nanofluid Flows on Heat Transfer Intensification of Corrugated Channels with an Oscillating Blade. Chemical Engineering and Processing - Process Intensification, 179, 109072.
  23. Zahrana, S., Sultan, A. A., Bekheit, M., Elmarghany, M. R., 2022. Heat transfer augmentation through rectangular cross section duct with one corrugated surface: An experimental and numerical study. Case Studies in Thermal Engineering, 36, 102252.
  24. Obaidia, A. R. A., Alhamid, J., AliKhalaf, H., 2022. Effect of different corrugation interruptions Parameters on thermohydrodynamic characteristics and heat transfer performance of 3D Three-dimensional corrugated tube. Case Studies in Thermal Engineering, 32, 101879.
  25. Amar, Z., Rabinovich, E., Baroukh, I., Ziskinda, G., 2022. Parametric study of heat transfer coefficient and friction factor in a corrugated channel. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 196, 123290.
  26. Feng, C. N., Liang, C. H., Li, Z. X., 2022. Friction factor and heat transfer evaluation of cross-corrugated triangular flow channels with trapezoidal baffles. Energy and Buildings, 257, 111816.
  27. Li, X. J., Tan, X. M., Zhang, J. Z., Wu, B. B., Chena, W. W., 2022. Utilizing piezoelectric fan for heat transfer enhancement on corrugated surfaces. Thermal Science and Engineering Progress, (29), 101219.
  28. Lia, Y., Yu, Q., Yu, S., Gonga, B., Zhang, J., 2022. Numerical investigation of pulsating flow structures and heat transfer enhancement performance in spherical corrugated helical tube. Applied Thermal Engineering, 213, 118647.
  29. Talib, A. R. A., Hiloa, A. K., 2021. Fluid flow and heat transfer over corrugated backward facing step channel. Case Studies in Thermal Engineering, 24, 100862.
  30. Hu, Q., Qu, X., Peng, W., Wang, J., 2022. Experimental and numerical investigation of turbulent heat transfer enhancement of an intermediate heat exchanger using corrugated tubes. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 185, 122385.
  31. Li, W., Zhang, L., Klemešc, J. J., Wanga, Q., Zeng, M., 2022. Thermochemical energy conversion behaviour in the corrugated heat storage unit with porous metal support. Energy, In Press, Journal Pre-proof (2022), 124966.
  32. Bianco, V., Buonomo, B., di. Pasqua, A., Manca, O., 2021. Heat transfer enhancement of laminar impinging slot jets by nanofluids and metal foams. Thermal Science and Engineering Progress, (2021), 100860.
  33. Wan, Y., Wu, R., Qi, C., Duan, G., Yang, R., 2018. Experimental study on thermo-hydraulic performances of nanofluids flowing through a corrugated tube filled with copper foam in heat exchange systems. Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering, Volume 26(12), pp. 2431-2440.
  34. Alawi, O. A., Kamar, H. M., Hussein, O. A., Mallah, A. R., Mohammed, H. A., Khiadani, M., Roomi, A. B., Kazi, S. N., Yaseen, Z. M., 2022. Effects of binary hybrid nanofluid on heat transfer and fluid flow in a triangular-corrugated channel: An experimental and numerical study. Powder Technology, 395, pp. 267–279.
  35. COMSOL Group, 2021. COMSOL Multiphysics (V.6).
  36. Xiao, T., Liu, G., Guo, J., Shu, G., Lu, L., Yang, X., 2022. Effect of metal foam on improving solid–liquid phase change in a multi-channel thermal storage tank. Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, 53, 102533.